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2017年03月29日 09:11来源:互联网作者:银川管理员

摘要:

Chinese Population Growth

Increases in population have usually been accompanied (indeed facilitated) by an increase in trade. In the Western experience, commerce provided the conditions that allowed industrialization to get started, which in turn led to growth in science, technology, industry, transport, communications, social change, and the like that we group under the broad term of “development.” However, the massive increase in population that in Europe was at first attributed to industrialization starting in the eighteenth century occurred also and at the same period in China, even though there was no comparable industrialization.

It is estimated that the Chinese population by 1600 was close to 150 million. The transition between the Ming and Qing dynasties (the seventeenth century) may have seen a decline, but from 1741 to 1851 the annual figures rose steadily and spectacularly, perhaps beginning with 143 million and ending with 432 million. If we accept these totals, we are confronted with a situation in which the Chinese population doubled in the 50 years from 1790 to 1840. If, with greater caution, we assume lower totals in the early eighteenth century and only 400 million in 1850, we still face a startling fact: something like a doubling of the vast Chinese population in the century before Western contact, foreign trade, and industrialization could have had much effect.

To explain this sudden increase we cannot point to factors constant in Chinese society but must find conditions or a combination of factors that were newly effective in this period. Among these is the almost complete internal peace maintained under Manchu rule during the eighteenth century. There was also an increase in foreign trade through Guangzhou (southern China) and some improvement of transportation within the empire. Control of disease, like the checking of smallpox by variolation may have been important. But of most critical importance was the food supply.

Confronted with a multitude of unreliable figures, economists have compared the population records with the aggregate data for cultivated land area and grain production in the six centuries since 1368. Assuming that China’s population in 1400 was about 80 million, the economist Dwight Perkins concludes that its growth to 700 million or more in the 1960s was made possible by a steady increase in the grain supply, which evidently grew five or six times between 1400 and 1800 and rose another 50 percent between 1800 and 1965. This increase of food supply was due

perhaps half to the increase of cultivated area, particularly by migration and settlement in the central and western provinces, and half to greater productivity—the farmers’ success in raising more crops per unit of land.

This technological advance took many forms: one was the continual introduction from the south of earlier-ripening varieties of rice, which made possible double-cropping (the production of two harvests per year from one field). New crops such as corn (maize) and sweet potatoes as well as peanuts and tobacco were introduced from the Americas. Corn, for instance, can be grown on the dry soil and marginal hill land of North China, where it is used for food, fuel, and fodder and provides something like one-seventh of the food energy available in the area. The sweet potato, growing in sandy soil and providing more food energy per unit of land than other crops, became the main food of the poor in much of the South China rice area.

Productivity in agriculture was also improved by capital investments, first of all in irrigation. From 1400 to 1900 the total of irrigated land seems to have increased almost three times. There was also a gain in farm tools, draft animals, and fertilizer, to say nothing of the population growth itself, which increased half again as fast as cultivated land area and so increased the ratio of human hands available per unit of land. Thus the rising population was fed by a more intensive agriculture, applying more labor and fertilizer to the land.

Paragraph 1

Increases in population have usually been accompanied (indeed facilitated) by an increase in trade. In the Western experience, commerce provided the conditions that allowed industrialization to get started, which in turn led to growth in science, technology, industry, transport, communications, social change, and the like that we group under the broad term of “development.” However, the massive increase in population that in Europe was at first attributed to industrialization starting in the eighteenth century occurred also and at the same period in China, even though there was no comparable industrialization.

1. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A. Commerce, industrialization, and development are common features of the Western

experience.

B. Trade, industrialization, and development accelerated social change in Western societies.

C. Trade and industrialization brought about development in Western societies.

D. In Western societies, social change provided the conditions for development in a number of areas.

2. The word “attributed” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. accustomed

B. credited

C. exposed

D. transformed

Paragraph 1 and Paragraph 2

Increases in population have usually been accompanied (indeed facilitated) by an increase in trade. In the Western experience, commerce provided the conditions that allowed industrialization to get started, which in turn led to growth in science, technology, industry, transport, communications, social change, and the like that we group under the broad term of “development.” However, the massive increase in population that in Europe was at first attributed to industrialization starting in the eighteenth century occurred also and at the same period in China, even though there was no comparable industrialization.

It is estimated that the Chinese population by 1600 was close to 150 million. The transition between the Ming and Qing dynasties (the seventeenth century) may have seen a decline, but from 1741 to 1851 the annual figures rose steadily and spectacularly, perhaps beginning with 143 million and ending with 432 million. If we accept these totals, we are confronted with a situation in which the Chinese population doubled in the 50 years from 1790 to 1840. If, with greater caution, we assume lower totals in the early eighteenth century and only 400 million in 1850, we still face a startling fact: something like a doubling of the vast Chinese population in the century before Western contact, foreign trade, and industrialization could have had much effect.

3. According to paragraphs 1 and 2, which of the following is true of Chinese population growth between 1741and 1851?

A. It coincided with the beginning of industrialization in China.

B. It prompted speculation about the actual number of people living in China in previous centuries.

C. It continued the steady growth in population of previous centuries.

D. It occurred in the absence of certain conditions generally associated with population growth.

4. According to paragraph2, the estimated population of China in the mid 1700s was ?

A. 143 million

B. 150 million

C. 400 million

D. 432 million

Paragraph 3

To explain this sudden increase we cannot point to factors constant in Chinese society but must find conditions or a combination of factors that were newly effective in this period. Among these is the almost complete internal peace maintained under Manchu rule during the eighteenth century. There was also an increase in foreign trade through Guangzhou (southern China) and some improvement of transportation within the empire. Control of disease, like the checking of smallpox by variolation may have been important. But of most critical importance was the food supply.

5. The word “constant ” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. unique

B. dominant

C. altered

D. unchanging

6. Paragraph 3 supports all of the following statements about eighteenth-century Chinese society EXCEPT:

A. It was troubled by frequent conflicts with foreign nations.

B. It improved its transportation system.

C. It experienced growth in international commerce.

D. It managed to prevent the spread of certain diseases.

Paragraph 4

Confronted with a multitude of unreliable figures, economists have compared the population records with the aggregate data for cultivated land area and grain production in the six centuries since 1368. Assuming that China’s population in 1400 was about 80 million, the economist Dwight Perkins concludes that its growth to 700 million or more in the 1960s was made possible by a steady increase in the grain supply, which evidently grew five or six times between 1400 and 1800 and rose another 50 percent between 1800 and 1965. This increase of food supply was due perhaps half to the increase of cultivated area, particularly by migration and settlement in the central and western provinces, and half to greater productivity—the farmers’ success in raising more crops per unit of land.

7. Paragraph 4 answers which of the following questions about China’s population growth between 1400 and 1965?

A. Which figures relating to China’s population growth were unreliable?

B. Why did Dwight Perkins assume that China’s population in 1400 was about 80 million?

C. Where in China did most of the population increase take place?

D. What factors made China’s population growth between 1400 and 1965 possible?

8. The word “aggregate” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. available

B. reliable

C. combined

D. recorded

Paragraph 5

This technological advance took many forms: one was the continual introduction from the south of earlier-ripening varieties of rice, which made possible double-cropping (the production of two harvests per year from one field). New crops such as corn (maize) and sweet potatoes as well as peanuts and tobacco were introduced from the Americas. Corn, for instance, can be grown on the dry soil and marginal hill land of North China, where it is used for food, fuel, and fodder and provides something like one-seventh of the food energy available in the area. The sweet potato, growing in sandy soil and providing more food energy per unit of land than other crops, became

the main food of the poor in much of the South China rice area.

9. What can be inferred from paragraph 5 about the introduction of corn and sweet potatoes in China?

A. These crops required much more care than other crops.

B. These crops were consumed in limited quantities.

C. These crops permitted an expansion of the area used for farming.

D. These crops became available all over China within a short period of time.

Paragraph 6

Productivity in agriculture was also improved by capital investments, first of all in irrigation. From 1400 to 1900 the total of irrigated land seems to have increased almost three times. There was also a gain in farm tools, draft animals, and fertilizer, to say nothing of the population growth itself, which increased half again as fast as cultivated land area and so increased the ratio of human hands available per unit of land. Thus the rising population was fed by a more intensive agriculture, applying more labor and fertilizer to the land.

10. The word “ratio” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. proportion

B. availability

C. importance

D. cost

Paragraph 5 and Paragraph 6

This technological advance took many forms: one was the continual introduction from the south of earlier-ripening varieties of rice, which made possible double-cropping (the production of two harvests per year from one field). New crops such as corn (maize) and sweet potatoes as well as peanuts and tobacco were introduced from the Americas. Corn, for instance, can be grown on the dry soil and marginal hill land of North China, where it is used for food, fuel, and fodder and provides something like one-seventh of the food energy available in the area. The sweet potato, growing in sandy soil and providing more food energy per unit of land than other crops, became the main food of the poor in much of the South China rice area.

Productivity in agriculture was also improved by capital investments, first of all in irrigation. From 1400 to 1900 the total of irrigated land seems to have increased almost three times. There was also a gain in farm tools, draft animals, and fertilizer, to say nothing of the population growth itself, which increased half again as fast as cultivated land area and so increased the ratio of human hands available per unit of land. Thus the rising population was fed by a more intensive agriculture, applying more labor and fertilizer to the land.

11. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraphs 5 and 6 as one of the strategies the Chinese applied in agriculture?

A. The growing of two crops on the same field during the same year

B. The improvement of systems to supply crops with water

C. The application of increasing amounts of fertilizer to the land

D. The reduction in the amount of human labor per unit of land

12. What purpose does paragraph 5 serve in the larger discussion about China’s population growth?

A. It provides evidence of China’s emerging foreign trade relations.

B. It illustrates how the Chinese increased their food supply.

C. It provides evidence of why population growth was most noticeable in the south.

D. It shows how foreign crops gradually gained greater acceptance in China.

13.Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Other developments addressed the problems of dry and sandy areas unsuitable for growing China’s native crops.

Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.

This technological advance took many forms: one was the continual introduction from the south of earlier-ripening varieties of rice, which made possible double-cropping (the production of

two harvests per year from one field). ■ New crops such as corn (maize) and sweet potatoes as well as peanuts and tobacco were introduced from the Americas. ■Corn, for instance, can be grown on the dry soil and marginal hill land of North China, where it is used for food, fuel, and fodder and provides something like one-seventh of the food energy available in the area. ■The sweet potato, growing in sandy soil and providing more food energy per unit of land than other crops, became the main food of the poor in much of the South China rice area. ■

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it.

To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT.

Over the centuries, China has experienced an extraordinary increase in its population.

Answer Choices

A. Understanding the exceptional increase in population in China requires giving up commonly held assumptions relative to the phenomenon of population growth.

B. The economist Dwight Perkins applied a particular statistical method to determine the increase in China’s population.

C. The sudden population growth in China started in its northern and southern provinces, and it spread rapidly to the central and western areas of the country.

D. Improved transportation management and enhanced disease control contributed to China’s population explosion.

E. The increase in China’s food supply, which affected population growth, was the result of technological developments in agriculture and capital investment.

F. A steady increase in foreign trade since the 1400s provided the conditions necessary for large-scale agricultural development.

 

Termite Ingenuity

Termites, social insects which live in colonies that, in some species, contain 2 million individuals or more, are often incorrectly referred to as white ants. But they are certainly not ants. Termites, unlike ants, have gradual metarnorphosis with only three life stage: egg, nymph, and adult. Ants and the other social members of their order, certain bees and wasps, have complete metarnorphosis in four life stages; egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The worker and soldier castes of social ants, bees, and wasps consist of only females, all daughters of a single queen that mated soon after she matured and thereafter never mated again. The worker and soldier castes of termites consist of both males and females, and the queen lives permanently with a male consort.

Since termites are small and soft-bodied, they easily become desiccated and must live in moist places with a high relative humidity. They do best when the relative humidity in their nest is above 96 percent and the temperature is fairly high, an optimum of about 79°F for temperate zone species and about 86°F for tropical species. Subterranean termites, the destructive species that occurs commonly throughout the eastern United States, attain these conditions by nesting in moist soil that is in contact with wood, their only food. The surrounding soil keeps the nest moist and tends to keep the temperature at a more or less favorable level. When it is cold in winter, subterranean termites move to burrows below the frost line.

Some tropical termites are more ingenious engineers, constructing huge above-ground nests with built-in “air conditioning” that keeps the nest moist, at a constant temperature, and well supplied with oxygen. Among the most architecturally advanced of these termites is an African species, Macroternes natalensis. Renowned Swiss entomologist Martin Luscher described the mounds of this fungus-growing species as being as much as 16 feet tall, 16 feet in diameter at their base, and with a cement-like wall of soil mixed with termite saliva that is from 16 to 23 inches thick. The thick and dense wall of the mound insulates the interior microclimate from the variations in humidity and temperature of the outside atmosphere. Several narrow and relatively thin-walled ridges on the outside of the mound extend from near its base almost to its top.

According to luscher, a medium-sized nest of Macrotermes has a population of about 2 million individuals. The metabolism of so many termites and of the fungus that they grow in their gardens as food helps keep the interior of the nest warm and supplies some moisture to the air in the nest. The termites saturate the atmosphere of the nest, bringing it to about 100 percent relative humidity,

by carrying water up from the soil.

But how is this well-insulated nest ventilated? Its many occupants require over 250 quarts of oxygen (more than 1,200 quarts of aire) per day. How can so much oxygen diffuse through the thick walls of the mound? Even the pores in the wall are filled with water, which almost stops the diffusion of gases. The answer lies in the construction of the nest. The interior consists of a large central core in which the fungus is grown, below it is “cellar” of empty space, above it is an “attic” of empty space, and within the ridges on the outer wall of the nest, there are many small tunnels that connect the cellar and the attic. The warm air in the fungus gardens rises through the nest up to the attic. From the attic, the air passes into the tunnels in the ridges and flows back down to the cellar. Gases, mainly oxygen coming in and carbon dioxide going out, easily diffuse into or out of the ridges, since their walls are thin and their surface area is large because they protrude far our from the wall of the mound. Thus air that flows down into the cellar through the ridges is relatively rich in oxygen, and has lost much of its carbon dioxide. It supplies the nest’s inhabitants with fresh oxygen as it rises through the fungus-growing area back up to the attic.

Passage 1

Termites, social insects which live in colonies that, in some species, contain 2 million individuals or more, are often incorrectly referred to as white ants. But they are certainly not ants. Termites, unlike ants, have gradual metarnorphosis with only three life stage: egg, nymph, and adult. Ants and the other social members of their order, certain bees and wasps, have complete metarnorphosis in four life stages; egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The worker and soldier castes of social ants, bees, and wasps consist of only females, all daughters of a single queen that mated soon after she matured and thereafter never mated again. The worker and soldier castes of termites consist of both males and females, and the queen lives permanently with a male consort.

1. The author mentions “white ants” in the beginning of the passage in order to

A. correct a common misunderstanding about termites’

B. introduce the idea that termites only take the form of ants during certain life stages

C. argue that not all white ants are social insects

D. Illustrate the large variety of insect species that live in colonies

2. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true about termites?

A. They are a kind of ant, but they are unlike most ants in many ways.

B. They form colonies that grow at first and then gradually decline.

C. Their workers are all males, and their soldiers are all females.

D. They go through a life state called the nymph stage.

Passage 2

Since termites are small and soft-bodied, they easily become desiccated and must live in moist places with a high relative humidity. They do best when the relative humidity in their nest is above 96 percent and the temperature is fairly high, an optimum of about 79°F for temperate zone species and about 86°F for tropical species. Subterranean termites, the destructive species that occurs commonly throughout the eastern United States, attain these conditions by nesting in moist soil that is in contact with wood, their only food. The surrounding soil keeps the nest moist and tends to keep the temperature at a more or less favorable level. When it is cold in winter, subterranean termites move to burrows below the frost line.

3. According to paragraph 2, termites need to live in nests with high humidity in order to

A. keep their food moist

B. withstand cold temperatures in winter

C. protect their bodies from drying out

D. keep nest temperatures high

4. The word “attain” in the passage is closet in meaning to

A. achieve

B. observe

C. overcome

D. reflect

5. The word “ingenious” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. determined

B. clever

C. ambitious

D. successful

Passage 3

Some tropical termites are more ingenious engineers, constructing huge above-ground nests with built-in “air conditioning” that keeps the nest moist, at a constant temperature, and well supplied with oxygen. Among the most architecturally advanced of these termites is an African species, Macroternes natalensis. Renowned Swiss entomologist Martin Luscher described the mounds of this fungus-growing species as being as much as 16 feet tall, 16 feet in diameter at their base, and with a cement-like wall of soil mixed with termite saliva that is from 16 to 23 inches thick. The thick and dense wall of the mound insulates the interior microclimate from the variations in humidity and temperature of the outside atmosphere. Several narrow and relatively thin-walled ridges on the outside of the mound extend from near its base almost to its top.

6. The word “ingenious” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. determined

B. clever

C. ambitious

D. successful

7. The word “Renowned” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. Skilled

B. Famous

C. Early

D. Revolutionary

8. According to paragraph 3, the nests of some tropical termite species have the ability to

A. insulate the microclimate in one part of the nest from the microclimate in another part

B. Allow moist outside air to get inside regardless of whether it is warm or cool

C. rapidly decrease the humidity inside when it gets hot outside

D. Provide the oxygen needed in the nest

Passage 3 & 4

Some tropical termites are more ingenious engineers, constructing huge above-ground nests with built-in “air conditioning” that keeps the nest moist, at a constant temperature, and well supplied with oxygen. Among the most architecturally advanced of these termites is an African species, Macroternes natalensis. Renowned Swiss entomologist Martin Luscher described the mounds of this fungus-growing species as being as much as 16 feet tall, 16 feet in diameter at their base, and with a cement-like wall of soil mixed with termite saliva that is from 16 to 23 inches thick. The thick and dense wall of the mound insulates the interior microclimate from the variations in humidity and temperature of the outside atmosphere. Several narrow and relatively thin-walled ridges on the outside of the mound extend from near its base almost to its top.

According to luscher, a medium-sized nest of Macrotermes has a population of about 2 million individuals. The metabolism of so many termites and of the fungus that they grow in their gardens as food helps keep the interior of the nest warm and supplies some moisture to the air in the nest. The termites saturate the atmosphere of the nest, bringing it to about 100 percent relative humidity, by carrying water up from the soil.

9. According to paragraphs 3 and 4, all of the following are true of the nests of Macroternes natalensis EXCEPT:

A. The walls are built out of soil mixed with termite saliva.

B. The nests can be as tall as they are wide at the base.

C. The interior of the nest is kept as humid as possible.

D. The termites use hollow, thin-walled ridges to travel from one part of the nest to another.

Passage 4

According to luscher, a medium-sized nest of Macrotermes has a population of about 2 million individuals. The metabolism of so many termites and of the fungus that they grow in their gardens as food helps keep the interior of the nest warm and supplies some moisture to the air in the nest. The termites saturate the atmosphere of the nest, bringing it to about 100 percent relative humidity, by carrying water up from the soil.

10. According to paragraph 4, how does the fungus grown by Macrotermes natalensis affect the environment of the nest?

A. It carries water up from the soil into the interior.

B. It dries the air by using up moisture as it grows.

C. It heats and adds humidity to the inside of the nest.

D. It lessens the effects of the metabolism of so many termites.

Passage 5

But how is this well-insulated nest ventilated? Its many occupants require over 250 quarts of oxygen (more than 1,200 quarts of aire) per day. How can so much oxygen diffuse through the thick walls of the mound? Even the pores in the wall are filled with water, which almost stops the diffusion of gases. The answer lies in the construction of the nest. The interior consists of a large central core in which the fungus is grown, below it is “cellar” of empty space, above it is an “attic” of empty space, and within the ridges on the outer wall of the nest, there are many small tunnels that connect the cellar and the attic. The warm air in the fungus gardens rises through the nest up to the attic. From the attic, the air passes into the tunnels in the ridges and flows back down to the cellar. Gases, mainly oxygen coming in and carbon dioxide going out, easily diffuse into or out of the ridges, since their walls are thin and their surface area is large because they protrude far our from the wall of the mound. Thus air that flows down into the cellar through the ridges is relatively rich in oxygen, and has lost much of its carbon dioxide. It supplies the nest’s inhabitants with fresh oxygen as it rises through the fungus-growing area back up to the attic.

11. According to paragraph 5, what does the thinness of the ridge walls make possible?

A. The concentration of cool air in the cellar

B. The construction of exceptionally long tunnels

C. The even distribution of oxygen from attic to cellar

D. The diffusion of gases into and out of the ridges

12. According to paragraph 5, what happens to the air in the ridge tunnels of Macrotermes natalensis nests?

A. It becomes more humid as water vapor diffuses into the tunnels.

B. It loses carbon dioxide and gains oxygen.

C. It reaches the interior of the nest through pores in the walls.

D. It moves in the same direction as the air in the center of the nest.

13. Paragraph 5 supports which of the following about the air that flows through the interior of a Macrotermes natalensis mound?

A. It has a higher concentration of oxygen in the cellar than in the attic.

B. It is the same temperature as the air on the outside of the mound.

C. It contains over 250 quarts of oxygen which circulate continuously.

D. It is most humid in the cellar and gradually loses moisture as it rises to the attic.

14. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

If not through the walls or its pores, how does oxygen enter the nest at all, since the nest has a closed surface?

Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.

But how is this well-insulated nest ventilated? Its many occupants require over 250 quarts of oxygen (more than 1,200 quarts of aire) per day. How can so much oxygen diffuse through the thick walls of the mound? [■] Even the pores in the wall are filled with water, which almost stops the diffusion of gases. [■] The answer lies in the construction of the nest. [■] The interior consists

of a large central core in which the fungus is grown, below it is “cellar” of empty space, above it is an “attic” of empty space, and within the ridges on the outer wall of the nest, there are many small tunnels that connect the cellar and the attic. [■] The warm air in the fungus gardens rises through the nest up to the attic. From the attic, the air passes into the tunnels in the ridges and flows back down to the cellar. Gases, mainly oxygen coming in and carbon dioxide going out, easily diffuse into or out of the ridges, since their walls are thin and their surface area is large because they protrude far our from the wall of the mound. Thus air that flows down into the cellar through the ridges is relatively rich in oxygen, and has lost much of its carbon dioxide. It supplies the nest’s inhabitants with fresh oxygen as it rises through the fungus-growing area back up to the attic.

15. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 3 points.

Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it.

To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT.

Termites are social insects that live in large, often elaborately constructed nests.

Answer Choices

A. Although termites resemble ants in terms of size, metarmorphosis, and social organization, they actually belong to a different order of insects.

B. Some termites build their nests under ground, while other construct above-ground structures with thick, insulating wall.

C. Some termite species grow a fungus in their nests so that it will purify the air by taking in carbon dioxide and giving off oxygen.

D. Termites are sensitive to dryness and to changes in temperature, so their nests are designed to

minimize these factors.

E. Whether they lie above ground or below ground, termite nests must include special pores that allow air to enter the nests.

F. The nests of Macrotermes natalensis consist of a series of chambers and tunnels that allow for the circulation of air and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

 

Climate and Urban Development

For more than a hundred years, it has been known that cities are generally warmer than surrounding rural areas. This region of city warmth, known as the urban heat island, can influence the concentration of air pollution. However, before we look at its influence, let’s see how the heat island actually forms.

The urban heat island is due to industrial and urban development. In rural areas, a large part of the incoming solar energy is used in evaporating water from vegetation and soil. In cities, where less vegetation and exposed soil exist, the majority of the Sun’s energy is absorbed by urban structures and asphalt. Hence, during warm daylight hours, less evaporative cooling in cities allows surface temperatures to rise higher than in rural areas. The cause of the urban heat island is quite involved. Depending on the location, time of year, and time of day, any or all of the following differences between cities and their surroundings can be important: albedo (reflectivity of the surface), surface roughness, emissions of heat, emissions of moisture, and emissions of particles that affect net radiation and the growth of cloud droplets.

At night, the solar energy (stored as vast quantities of heat in city buildings and roads) is slowly released into the city air. Additional city heat is given off at night (and during the day) by vehicles and factories, as well as by industrial and domestic heating and cooling units. The release of heat energy is retarded by the tall vertical city walls that do not allow infrared radiation to escape as readily as does the relatively level surface of the surrounding countryside. The slow release of heat tends to keep nighttime city temperatures higher than those of the faster-cooling rural areas. Overall, the heat island is strongest (1) at night when compensating sunlight is absent; (2) during the winter, when nights are longer and there is more heat generated in the city; and (3) when the region is dominated by a high-pressure area with light winds, clear skies, and less humid air. Over time, increasing urban heat islands affect climatological temperature records, producing artificial warming in climatic records taken in cities. This warming, therefore, must be accounted for in interpreting climate change over the past century.

The constant outpouring of pollutants into the environment may influence the climate of the city. Certain particles reflect solar radiation, thereby reducing the sunlight that reaches the surface. Some particles serve as nuclei upon which water and ice form. Water vapor condenses onto these

particles when the relative humidity is as low as 70 percent, forming haze that greatly reduces visibility. Moreover, the added nuclei increase the frequency of city fog.

Studies suggest that precipitation may be greater in cities than in the surrounding countryside; this phenomenon may be due in part to the increased roughness of city terrain, brought on by large structures that cause surface air to slow and gradually converge. This piling up of air over the city then slowly rises, much like toothpaste does when its tube is squeezed. At the same time, city heat warms the surface air, making it more unstable, which enhances risings air motions, which, in turn, aids in forming clouds and thunderstorms. This process helps explain why both tend to be more frequent over cities.

On clear still nights when the heat island is pronounced, a small thermal low-pressure area forms over the city. Sometimes a light breeze—called a country breeze—blows from the countryside into the city. If there are major industrial areas along the outskirts, pollutants are carried into the heat of town, where they tend to concentrate. Such an event is especially probable if vertical mixing and dispersion of pollutants are inhibited. Pollutants from urban areas may even affect the weather downwind from them.

Paragraph 2

The urban heat island is due to industrial and urban development. In rural areas, a large part of the incoming solar energy is used in evaporating water from vegetation and soil. In cities, where less vegetation and exposed soil exist, the majority of the Sun’s energy is absorbed by urban structures and asphalt. Hence, during warm daylight hours, less evaporative cooling in cities allows surface temperatures to rise higher than in rural areas. The cause of the urban heat island is quite involved. Depending on the location, time of year, and time of day, any or all of the following differences between cities and their surroundings can be important: albedo (reflectivity of the surface), surface roughness, emissions of heat, emissions of moisture, and emissions of particles that affect net radiation and the growth of cloud droplets.

1. The word “involved” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. uncertain

B. complicated

C. common

D. clear

2. Paragraph 2 mentions all of the following as varying the importance of albedo and other factors EXCEPT

A. seasons

B. soil depth

C. geographic location

D. the time of day

Paragraph 3

At night, the solar energy (stored as vast quantities of heat in city buildings and roads) is slowly released into the city air. Additional city heat is given off at night (and during the day) by vehicles and factories, as well as by industrial and domestic heating and cooling units. The release of heat energy is retarded by the tall vertical city walls that do not allow infrared radiation to escape as readily as does the relatively level surface of the surrounding countryside. The slow release of heat tends to keep nighttime city temperatures higher than those of the faster-cooling rural areas. Overall, the heat island is strongest (1) at night when compensating sunlight is absent; (2) during the winter, when nights are longer and there is more heat generated in the city; and (3) when the region is dominated by a high-pressure area with light winds, clear skies, and less humid air. Over time, increasing urban heat islands affect climatological temperature records, producing artificial warming in climatic records taken in cities. This warming, therefore, must be accounted for in interpreting climate change over the past century.

3. The word “retarded” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. disguised

B. added to

C. made possible

D. slowed down

Paragraph 4

The constant outpouring of pollutants into the environment may influence the climate of the city. Certain particles reflect solar radiation, thereby reducing the sunlight that reaches the surface. Some particles serve as nuclei upon which water and ice form. Water vapor condenses onto these particles when the relative humidity is as low as 70 percent, forming haze that greatly reduces visibility. Moreover, the added nuclei increase the frequency of city fog.

4. According to paragraph 4, how do pollutants reduce the distance it is possible to see?

A. They increase the amount of sunlight that reaches the ground.

B. They increase the relative humidity.

C. They form particles that irritate the eye.

D. They serve as nuclei around which water condenses.

Paragraph 2 and Paragraph 3

The urban heat island is due to industrial and urban development. In rural areas, a large part of the incoming solar energy is used in evaporating water from vegetation and soil. In cities, where less vegetation and exposed soil exist, the majority of the Sun’s energy is absorbed by urban structures and asphalt. Hence, during warm daylight hours, less evaporative cooling in cities allows surface temperatures to rise higher than in rural areas. The cause of the urban heat island is quite involved. Depending on the location, time of year, and time of day, any or all of the following differences between cities and their surroundings can be important: albedo (reflectivity of the surface), surface roughness, emissions of heat, emissions of moisture, and emissions of particles that affect net radiation and the growth of cloud droplets.

At night, the solar energy (stored as vast quantities of heat in city buildings and roads) is slowly released into the city air. Additional city heat is given off at night (and during the day) by vehicles and factories, as well as by industrial and domestic heating and cooling units. The release of heat energy is retarded by the tall vertical city walls that do not allow infrared radiation to escape as readily as does the relatively level surface of the surrounding countryside. The slow release of heat tends to keep nighttime city temperatures higher than those of the faster-cooling rural areas. Overall, the heat island is strongest (1) at night when compensating sunlight is absent; (2) during the winter, when nights are longer and there is more heat generated in the city; and (3)

when the region is dominated by a high-pressure area with light winds, clear skies, and less humid air. Over time, increasing urban heat islands affect climatological temperature records, producing artificial warming in climatic records taken in cities. This warming, therefore, must be accounted for in interpreting climate change over the past century.

5. Select the TWO answer choices that describe ways mentioned in paragraphs 2 and 3 in which solar energy affects urban and rural areas. To receive credit, you must select TWO answers.

A. Solar energy causes evaporation from vegetation and soil, producing a cooling effect.

B. Solar energy stored as heat is lost quickly when tall city buildings guide hot air up and away from the surface.

C. Solar energy increases the atmospheric pressure over open areas.

D. Solar energy is stored up in buildings and roads and emitted as heat during the night.

6. Paragraph 3 supports which of the following claims about the interpretation of temperature records?

A. The climate may not be warming as much as the increase of temperatures recorded in cities appears to suggest.

B. Records show that the increase in urban heat islands has had a significant warming effect on the global climate.

C. During most of the past century, temperature records have been misinterpreted.

D. Scientists will not be able to account for climate change over the past century until they learn more about the urban heat island.

7. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 3 as contributing to an increase in the amount of heat within a city EXCEPT

A. home air conditioners

B. cars and trucks

C. streetlights

D. factory buildings

8. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. (文中未显示阴影部分)

A. Until more studies are done, suggestions about the causes of precipitation in cities will focus on the roughness of terrain rather than on surface air and convergence.

B. Certain phenomena of city landscapes, such as large structures, cause surface air to slow and converge, which brings a change in weather patterns to cities and rural areas.

C. One reason why precipitation may be greater in cities than in the countryside is that large buildings that are found in cities cause surface air to slow and converge.

D. Studies that focus on large structures, which are only partly responsible for the increased roughness of city terrain, are incomplete in their explanation of increased precipitation.

Paragraph 5

Studies suggest that precipitation may be greater in cities than in the surrounding countryside; this phenomenon may be due in part to the increased roughness of city terrain, brought on by large structures that cause surface air to slow and gradually converge. This piling up of air over the city then slowly rises, much like toothpaste does when its tube is squeezed. At the same time, city heat warms the surface air, making it more unstable, which enhances risings air motions, which, in turn, aids in forming clouds and thunderstorms. This process helps explain why both tend to be more frequent over cities.

9. Why does the author mention “toothpaste” being squeezed from a tube?

A. To compare the movement of toothpaste from a tube to the movement of precipitation from clouds

B. To suggest that the process of cloud formation is a simple, everyday experience

C. To help the reader visualize the process of air movement over a city

D. To contrast the slow rising of air currents with the rapid squeezing of toothpaste

10. The word “both” in the passage refers to

A. piling up and warming of air

B. clouds and thunderstorms

C. warm surface air and rising air motions

D. heat and instability

Paragraph 6

On clear still nights when the heat island is pronounced, a small thermal low-pressure area forms over the city. Sometimes a light breeze—called a country breeze—blows from the countryside into the city. If there are major industrial areas along the outskirts, pollutants are carried into the heat of town, where they tend to concentrate. Such an event is especially probable if vertical mixing and dispersion of pollutants are inhibited. Pollutants from urban areas may even affect the weather downwind from them.

11. The word “pronounced” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. examined

B. relative

C. strongest

D. darkest

12. According to paragraph 6, the highest concentration of pollutants is likely to be found

A. in the center of the city

B. over industrial areas outside the city

C. in rural areas downwind of the city

D. high in the atmosphere during daylight hours

12. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

The resulting difference in atmosphere pressure between the city and the countryside can cause air to shift.

Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.

On clear still nights when the heat island is pronounced, a small thermal low-pressure area forms over the city. ■Sometimes a light breeze—called a country breeze—blows from the countryside into the city. ■If there are major industrial areas along the outskirts, pollutants are carried into the heat of town, where they tend to concentrate. ■Such an event is especially probable if vertical mixing and dispersion of pollutants are inhibited. ■Pollutants from urban areas may even affect the weather downwind from them.

13. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it.

To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT.

Cities are generally warmer than the surrounding countryside, a phenomenon known as the urban heat island.

Answer Choices

A. In the countryside, much solar energy is used in evaporation, but in the city this energy builds up as heat.

B. Increased industrial and urban development has also increased average levels of humidity over the last century.

C. Pollution from cars and factories helps increase the amounts of fog and precipitation that occur in cities.

D. The urban heat island is strongest in the summer, when the days are long and the sunlight is intense.

E. Heat and air are trapped in the irregular spaces between buildings, which creates the atmospheric conditions that result in storms and winds.

F. Country breezes blow pollutants put from the cities into the surrounding countryside.

 

托福TPO阅读38文本+题目+答案

阅读一:1-5.CBDAD 6-10.ADCCA 11-13.DBA 14.ADE

阅读二:1-5.ACABB 6-10.BDDBB 11-13.BBC 14.BDE

阅读三:1-4.BBDD 5.AD 6-10.ACCCB 11-13.CAA 14.ACE

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